First responders have started to transition from public safety narrow band communication systems (typically LMR or PMR) to broadband cellular communications such as LTE and 5G, since these cellular technologies enable the introduction of new forms of information such as video-to-video communications, real-time video surveillance, and video group calls, among others. To this end, the 3GPP standardized different features such as Critical Push to Talk (MCPTT) in R13, Mission-Critical Data (MCDATA) and Mission-Critical Video (MCVIDEO) in R14, with additional improvements in R15. In addition, R16 introduced improved features such as enhanced Ultra-Reliable Low Latency (eURLLC), the Future Railway Mobile Communication System (FRMCS), Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN), and the inclusion of 5G NR in Unlicensed spectrum (5G NR-U) for the use of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Future mobile networks will support a wide range of verticals such as smart retail, connected healthcare, and smart automation. However, commercial implementations for most of these features are still in development and have yet to become available for the market.
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