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Vehicle-to-Grid Technologies and Applications

As the market for Electric Vehicles (EVs) starts to gain some momentum, the way consumers use energy could also be transformed. One such transformative technology is Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology, the bidirectional flow of energy from the grid to vehicle and vice versa.

The main premise behind the idea of V2G is that that energy can be stored on the battery during off-peak hours and can be discharged from the vehicle to the grid to provide an extra source of energy during peak hours and blackouts using a bidirectional charger.  This will enable energy markets to better incorporate intermittent renewable energy sources by creating off-peak storage, to have additional resources available for frequency control as well as help grid operators and distributors to better handle line constraints and forecast demand.

This report will examine the technology behind V2G applications, the market drivers and barriers to V2G technologies, the current and future applications of V2G as well as provide forecasts for EV shipments, energy usage and market potential.

In addition, the report provides vendor profiles from a wide range of players actively involved in the application of V2G technology, such as: New Motion, Nissan, Nuvve, OVO Energy and Witricity.

 

Table of Contents

  • 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • 2. STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS
    • 2.1. Key Stakeholders
    • 2.2. Strategic Recommendations
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • 3.1. Key Definitions
    • 3.2. The Electricity Market
    • 3.3. Wholesale Electricity Markets
    • 3.4. Transmission Cost of Electricity
  • 4. V2G TECHNOLOGY
    • 4.1. Overview
    • 4.2. Connected PEV
    • 4.3. EV Supply Equipment
    • 4.4. Onboard/Offboard Rectifier and Inverter
    • 4.5. V2G Communication
    • 4.6. Aggregation
    • 4.7. Wireless V2G
  • 5. KEY V2G APPLICATIONS
    • 5.1. Load Shifting
    • 5.2. Arbitrage Opportunities
    • 5.3. Frequency Control
    • 5.4. Microgrids and Network Outages
    • 5.5. Renewable Energy Buffer
    • 5.6. Commercial EV Fleet Operations
  • 6. V2G MARKET BARRIERS
    • 6.1. Power Limitations
    • 6.2. Battery Degradation Perception
    • 6.3. Consumer Perception
    • 6.4. Lack of Legislation
  • 7. KEY VENDOR PROFILES
    • 7.1. Nissan
    • 7.2. NUVVE
    • 7.3. OVO Energy
    • 7.4. NewMotion
    • 7.5. WiTricity
  • 8. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
    • 8.1. Net Value to Suppliers
    • 8.2. Net Value to Consumers
  • 9. MARKET FORECASTS
    • 9.1. EV Forecasts
    • 9.2. Energy Forecasts
    • 9.3. Total Market Potential