The evolution of Evolved Packet Core (EPC) has come a long way since its first inception in 2007 by 3GPP, in Release 8, as a simplified, all-IP, flat architecture based core network for LTE system. In release 14, in June 2017, 3GPP provided architectural enhancements by providing a key core network feature in form of Control and User Plane Separation (CUPS) specification for EPC nodes.As IP traffic increased over time, Packet Switching (PS) was introduced as an enhancement to Circuit Switching (CS) to transport data in packets while retaining transport protocol for voice and SMS over CS. With this, the core network evolved into two domains namely, circuit and packet.
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