The United Kingdom was one of the earliest countries to outsource managed services, and all of the network operators in the UK currently outsource most or all of their operations. Ericsson currently dominates the managed services business in the United Kingdom, building upon early managed services contracts which gave the company experienced personnel. However, some of Ericsson’s maintenance services from these contracts are sub-contracted to other companies such as Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) and BT Managed Services and other smaller regional players. Some of the biggest opportunities in the United Kingdom for managed services and field maintenance are currently up for renewal, with Ericsson’s multi-year contracts expiring at the end of this year. RFPs have been released already, and vendors (including Ericsson, NSN, and Huawei) are currently working on their proposals.